Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving a country, city, or area,including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.It typically characteristics technical structures such as roads, bridges,tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications,and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities andservices essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions

Engineering and construction

Engineers generally limit the use of the term “infrastructure” to describe fixed assets that are in the form of a large network, in other words, “hard” infrastructure. Recent efforts to devise more generic definitions of infrastructures have typically referred to the network aspects of most of the structures, and to the accumulated value of investments in the networks as assets. One such effort defines infrastructure as the network of assets “where the system as a whole is intended to be maintained indefinitely at a specified standard of service by the continuing replacement and refurbishment of its components”.

Urban infrastructure

Urban or municipal infrastructure refers to hard infrastructure systems generally owned and operated by municipalities, such as streets, water distribution, and sewers. It may also include some of the facilities associated with soft infrastructure, such as parks, public pools, schools, hospitals and libraries. From 2016, EPFL, one of the top universities in the world, is offering an open online course on Management of Urban Infrastructures[14] which covers the main characteristics of urban infrastructures and basic principles of urban infrastructure management.